Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide (CO₂). It is called "dry" because it sublimates directly from a solid to a gas without passing through a liquid phase under normal atmospheric conditions.

Dry ice is made by compressing and cooling gaseous CO₂ until it liquefies. The liquid CO₂ is then allowed to expand rapidly, causing it to freeze into solid dry ice. The solid CO₂ can be compressed into pellets, blocks, or various shapes.

Dry ice is used for refrigeration and preservation, especially during shipping of perishable items like food and medical supplies. It's also used in fog machines for theatrical effects, in cleaning applications (dry ice blasting), and in scientific experiments.

Dry ice has a sublimation temperature of -78.5°C (-109.3°F), much colder than water ice, which melts at 0°C (32°F). This makes dry ice extremely effective for cooling and freezing applications.

No, touching dry ice with bare hands can cause severe frostbite or burns because of its extremely low temperature. Always handle dry ice with protective gloves or tools.

Using dry ice indoors requires caution. As dry ice sublimates, it releases CO₂ gas, which can displace oxygen in the air and pose a risk of asphyxiation in poorly ventilated areas. Adequate ventilation is essential.

Yes, dry ice can carbonate beverages. As dry ice sublimates in a liquid, it releases CO₂ gas, which dissolves in the liquid to create carbonation. However, this should be done carefully to avoid over-pressurization and potential hazards.

Dry ice should be stored in an insulated container, such as a cooler, to slow down sublimation. It should never be stored in a completely airtight container, as the buildup of CO₂ gas can cause the container to burst.